Does Hypermedia Scale?

Carson Gross

One objection that we sometimes hear to htmx and hypermedia is some variation of the following:

Well, it might work well for something small, but it won’t scale.

It is always dangerous to provoke us with essay-fodder and so lets dig into this claim a bit and see if we can shed some light on whether Hypermedia-Driven Applications (HDAs) can scale.


First of all, let’s define the term “scaling” and then the contexts that word can be used in development. In a software context, scaling typically means the ability of the software to handle “larger” things. Those things can be:

Each of these sense of the word “scaling” demand their own analysis with respect to HDAs.

#Scaling Nodes In General

Although this isn’t of much interest to individual developers making decisions about their own applications, it is worth stating that The Web has scaled incredibly well as a distributed networking system. It is the most successful distributed system that I am aware of, in any event.

This is not necessarily of interest to an individual application developer, but it sets the proper tone: hypermedia can scale.

#Scaling Application Performance

Does hypermedia scale well with performance? To answer this question, lets first look at some of the characteristics of performance-scalable software. While there is no authoritative source for these characteristics, most engineers with experience scaling software will agree that most of the items on this list are at least helpful:

It turns out, happily, that properly designed hypermedia systems can have all these characteristics.

Statelessness is a constraint of the REST-ful architecture that Roy Fielding created to describe the web. In practice, many hypermedia-driven applications use a session cookie to manage a small amount of state on the server side, but this is a well-understood technique that hasn’t proven fatal in scaling applications.

Horizontal scaling has a long history in hypermedia-driven applications and dovetails with the stateless nature of most hypermedia-driven applications: early PAAS vendors like heroku (of blessed memory) offered easy horizontal scaling of rails-driven applications, for example.

Feature independence is another strength of HDAs. In HDAs, end-points for screens tend to be decoupled from one another in a way that general JSON APIs are not. This means that those endpoints can be monitored, evolved and be tuned independently of one another. We have a long history of tuning these sorts of endpoints to create sub-100 millisecond response times (e.g. minimizing database queries for a given end-point by SQL tuning.)

Building on the independence of end-points to support various views, platform performance is easy to monitor and understand. Rather than a generalized JSON API that can be accessed in multiple ways across your application, you have UI specific end-points that construct hypermedia for specific views. Determining what is causing a performance issue becomes much easier when views are constructed on the server-side and requests are driven through simple hypermedia exchanges.

Finally, web applications have a long and storied history of caching. HTTP offers caching at the browser, controlled by headers. Mature server side frameworks like Rails offer sophisticated caching at the controller layer. Caching is second nature for HDAs.

All of these combine to make HDAs extremely scalable from a performance perspective. Battle-tested performance techniques are available for scaling your HDA as user load increases.

Does the HDA approach push more computation onto the server side? To an extent, this is true. However, the difference between the JSON representation for a given resource and the HTML representation for it is not nearly as large as some people think, particularly if you don’t include the header and footer information in HTML requests, as is common in htmx-based applications. Network latency and datastore-access typically dominates request time anyway, and the ability to use SQL (or a similar server-side query language) gives you an opportunity to optimize that aspect of the request.

HDAs also typically have the optimal “one request per view” naturally since, well, in HDAs the requests are your views.

#Scaling With # Of Features

Because HDAs tend to have independent end-points driven by UI needs, rather than a general JSON data API, scaling with the number of features is typically very easy. Assuming a reasonable Model-View-Controller split on the server side, Controllers and Models tend to be very independent of one another. When features truly overlap, having the features developed and tested on the server-side provides a more controlled and testable environment.

Views can achieve reuse via server-side includes, found in nearly all server-side templating libraries, or be maintained separately in order to avoid interdependencies.

All of this is to say that, with reasonable application architecture, HDAs often scale very well with the # of features in an application, especially when those features are inherently decoupled from one another.

#Scaling With Complexity Of Features

Scaling with the # of features is at some level akin to horizontal scaling: so long as they are relatively independent they will scale fine (and if they aren’t, HDAs will still often scale as well as or better than other options.)

But what about deep features: features that are complex in themselves?

Here we must split the deep features into two categories:

For deep server-side features, HDAs are often a great choice. A good example of this is something like an AI chat-bot: this is a very sophisticated server-side feature, but it interacts with the user via a simple textual interface. Many AI chat-bots have been built using htmx, with people remarking on how simple it is.

For deep client-side features, HDAs are sometimes not a great choice. We outline details on this in our essay on when to choose hypermedia. To summarize that article: if your UI requires responding to a large number of events quickly (e.g. dragging a map-view) or has significant inter-UI dependencies that cannot be updated in a bulk hypermedia exchange (e.g. a spreadsheet application), the hypermedia approach isn’t going to work well

However, we would note two things:

#Scaling The Team

The final sense of scaling we will consider is the idea of scaling a development team. Here we must rely on more subjective and anecdotal measures, unfortunately.

It is our experience (and the experience of others) that HDAs seem to allow you to accomplish more with fewer developers. They also eliminate the front-end/back-end split, and the communication friction of this split, since developers become responsible for entire features. Some people like the front-end/back-end split and feel this allows teams to scale better by making the teams independent.

We do not agree. We think that the front-end and back-end of most web applications are inherently coupled and, therefore, the best approach is to adopt an architecture that accepts this coupling and is designed to handle change well, which the hypermedia approach is (via the uniform interface.)

Can HDAs scale to teams of 100 or more? This we can’t answer because we haven’t seen this scenario. But it can certainly scale into the 10s. We can imagine the approach scaling much higher (it did during the web 1.0 era, after all) but at this point we are speculating.

We prefer smaller teams anyway. 10 developers should be enough for any application.


So, taking these all together, we have the following conclusion regarding scaling Hypermedia-Driven Applications:

HDAs can scale very well with respect to performance and feature count. They can scale with feature complexity, with caveats. And, finally, the jury is still out on scaling with team size, although we can say that the HDA approach tends to keep teams smaller and eliminate inter-team communication friction.