Locality of Behaviour (LoB)

Carson Gross

“The primary feature for easy maintenance is locality: Locality is that characteristic of source code that enables a programmer to understand that source by looking at only a small portion of it.” – Richard Gabriel

#The LoB Principle

Locality of Behaviour is the principle that:

The behaviour of a unit of code should be as obvious as possible by looking only at that unit of code


The LoB principle is a simple prescriptive formulation of the quoted statement from Richard Gabriel. In as much as it is possible, and in balance with other concerns, developers should strive to make the behaviour of a code element obvious on inspection.

Consider two different implementations of an AJAX request in HTML, the first in htmx:

<button hx-get="/clicked">Click Me</button>

and the second in jQuery:

  $("#d1").on("click", function(){
         /* AJAX options... */
<button id="d1">Click Me</button>

In the former, the behaviour of the button element is obvious on inspection, satisfying the LoB principle.

In the latter, the behaviour of the button element is spread out amongst multiple files. It is difficult to know exactly what the button does without a total knowledge of the code base. This “spooky action at a distance” is a source of maintenance issues and stands in the way of developers understanding of the code base.

The htmx example demonstrates good Locality of Behaviour, while the jQuery example has poor Locality of Behaviour.

#Surfacing Behaviour vs. Inlining Implementation

A common objection to Locality of Behaviour is that it is inlining implementation details within a code unit, making the code unit less abstract and more brittle. However, it is important to make the distinction between inlining the implementation of some behaviour and inlining the invocation (or declaration) of some behaviour.

Consider functions in most programming languages: there is a distinction between the declaration of function and its use at call sites. A good function abstracts away its implementation details, but is also invoked in an obvious manner, without any spooky action at a distance.

Increasing the obviousness of the behaviour of an element is, ceteris paribus, a good thing, but it falls to both end-developers and especially framework developers to make LoB both as easy and as conceptually clean as possible.

#Conflict With Other Development Principles

The LoB will often conflict with other software development principles. Two important ones are:


LoB is a subjective software design principle that can help make a code base more humane and maintainable. It must be traded off against other design principles and be considered in terms of the limitations of the system a code unit is written in, but, as much as is it is practical, adherence to this principle will increase your software maintainability, quality and sustainability.